Published References To Sankey


A Dictionary of British Surnames
Guide to Irish Surnames
American and English Genealogies in the Library of Congress
The Knights of England
Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry (When Cromwell Came to Ireland)
Burkes General Armory Reprint of 1884 Edition
History Through Surnames
The Book of Heroic Failures
A Naval Biographical Dictionary
The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971
Fairburns Crests of the Families of G.B. and Ireland
Armorial Families
Burke's Landed Gentry
The Dictionary of National Biography 1941-50
Dictionary of National Biography 1901-1911
Portrait of the Black Country
Vanity Fair - Mr. Ira D. Sankey
Julian Dictionary of Hymnology - Ira David Sankey
The Chapelry of Sankey by William Beaumont
The History of Sankey by William Beaumont
Sir Hierome Sankey's Speech Regarding Dr. Thomas Petty


A Dictionary of British Surnames
Reaney Pub. Routledge and Kegan Paul London 1976

Page 306 SANKEY, SANKY: Gerard de Sanki t Hy I Fees; Roger de Sonkey 1246 Ass La; William Sanky 1292 Ass Ch; From Sankey (Lancs) Fees = Liber Fedorum 3 volumes London 1920-31. Ass La = Assize Rolls Lancashire. Acc Ch = Assize Rolls Cheshire


Guide to Irish Surnames
Maclysaght Pub. Helicon Dublin 1964

Page 241 SANKEY Memorials of the Sankeys of England and Ireland AD 1207-1880 by Sankey Best-Gardner. Pr. pr. Swansea 1880.


American and English Genealogies in the Library of Congress
Pub. Genealogical Pub. Co. Baltimore 1967

Page 978 SANKEY Sankey pedigrees (Printed for private circulation only). [Swansea, Printed at "The Cambrian" office] 1880. 3p. l. 2pl(coats of arms) 23 geneal. tab. (1 fold) 25cm. Blank leaves interspersed.

Caption title: Memorials of the Family of Sankey, AD 1207-1880, printed from the genealogical collection of Clement Sankey Best-Gardner, of Eaglebush, Neath.

Entry no.: 5377 Catalogue card no.: 15-25141 Call number: CS439.52


The Knights of England
W.A. Shaw Pub. Genealogical Pub. Co. Baltimore 1971

Volume 1 Page 292 Order of the Bath - KCB Civil 1892, May 25th. Lieut. Gen. Richard Hieram Sankey chairman, Board of Public Works, Ireland.

Volume 2 Page 224 Knights Bachelors* 1658, Nov 16th Hierome Sankey.

* Knights made in Ireland by Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland.


Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry (When Cromwell Came to Ireland)
Pub. MH Gill & Son Dublin 1884

* Gives sources at Trinity College, Dublin.

Page 245 Rent Roll of Lands, Captain Henry Sankey, Commissioner 1/9/1657.
Page 404 The "Forty-Nine" Officers. Inrolments of the Adjudications in favour of 1649 Officers. George Sankey. Page 421 Soldiers of the Commonwealth (in Ireland) to the Court of Claims. Sankey, Henry-Longford. Sankey, Nicholas-Longford.
Page 466 Names of persons in the Grants Under Acts of Settlement and Explanation. Sankey, Henry. Sankey, Hierom. Sankey, Nicholas.
Page 592 The Irish House of Commons in 1797, William Sankey.
Page 36 The "Bermingham" Family. Mary m. Nicholas Sankey of Sankystown, Kings County, Gent.


Burkes General Armory Reprint of 1884 Edition
Pub. Genealogical Pub. Co. Baltimore 1969

Page 897 Sankey (co. Worcester) Sa. three fishes in bend bet. two cotises ar.

Sankey (co. Bedford, Edesborough, co. Buckingham and Sankey and Southall co. Lancaster). Ar. on a bend sa. three salmon of the field.

Sankey (Sankeystown and Newtown, in the King's Co, St.Johnstown and Coolmore, co. Tipperary, Oaklands co. Wexford, Tenelick co. Longford and Dublin; descended from John Sankey, who settled in Ireland and got grants of land by patents in 1562 and 1578, second son of Edward Sankey Esq, of Edesborough, co. Bucks. Arms allowed by Betham, Ulster 1840). Same arms. Crest - A cubit arm vested sa. cuffed ar. holding a fish ppr. Motto - Sancta Clavis Coeli Fides.

Sankey (Lurganbrae, Brookborough co. Fermanagh) Same Arms, Crest and Motto.


History Through Surnames
Pergamon 1967

Page 154 Sancta Clavis Coeli Fides = Faith in heaven the sainted key.


The Book of Heroic Failures
Stephen Pile Pub. Futura London

Page 172 For many years the duel fought between Sir Hierome Sankey and Sir William Petty in 1645 was without equal. The dispute arose in London over a matter of honour now lost in the mists of time. Sir Hierome was a tough character and Sir William, being of a nervous disposition, was reluctant to fight him. Since Sir Hierome had initiated the duel, Sir William had the choice of venue and weapons. Brilliantly, he chose a pitch-dark cellar and two carpenters' axes which neither of them could lift.


A Naval Biographical Dictionary
O'Byrne Pub. Murray London 1849

Page 1028 SANKEY (Commander, 1844. F-P., 18; H-P., 9.)

Jacob Hiram Sankey, born 23 July 1807, is only surviving son of the late Matthew Villiers Sankey Esq., of Coolmore, by Mary Elrington, sister of Major Elrington, Major of the Tower of London. His grandfather, Jacob Sankey Esq., of Coolmore, married a sister of Admiral Sir Benjamin Caldwell. The Sankey family is of ancient and high standing.

This officer entered the Navy in Aug. 1820, as Fst.-cl. Vol., on board the CAMBRIAN 48, Capt. Gawen Wm. Hamilton, attached to the force in the Mediterranean, where he continued to serve as Midshipman, until 1827, in the HIND 20, Capt. Lord Henry John Spencer Churchill, WEASEL 10, Capt. Johnson, CAMBRIAN again, Capt. Hamilton, and REVENGE 76, Capt. Sir Chas. Burrard. He was actively employed during that period in the Archipelago in destroying pirates, with whom he came repeatedly into sharp conflict. In 1827, having passed his examination 20 Aug. 1826, he became Mate of the VICTORY 104, Capt. Hon. Geo. Eliot, at Portsmouth; in 1828 he returned to the Mediterranean in the MADAGASCAR 46, Capt. Hon. Sir Robt. Cavendish Spencer; and on 10 Dec 1835, after having been for some months employed on the Home and South American stations in the VERNON 50, Capt. Sir Francis Augustus Collier, and SPARTIATE 76, Capt. Robt. Tait, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. His succeeding appointments were - 30 April 1836, to the MINDEN 74, Capt. Alex. Renton Sharpe, with whom he served on the Lisbon station until the early part of 1837 - 25 May 1838, to the HERALD 26, Capt. Joseph Nias, fitting at Portsmouth - and 7 July following, to the INCONSTANT 36, Capts. Daniel Pring and Fred. Thos. Michell. He continued in the latter ship on the West India and Mediterranean stations, part of the time as First-Lieutenant, until paid off in March 1843. He has not been since afloat. His promotion to the rank he now holds took place 27 Aug. 1844. Commander Sankey married, 8 Feb 1844, Melita Anne, only daughter of the late Capt. G.W. Hamilton R.N. C.B., by whom he has issue.


The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971
L.G. Pine Pub. Heraldry Today London 1972

PEERAGE- U.K. Baron Sankey, of Moreton, co. Gloucester, and Viscount Sankey.
SURNAME- Sankey.
CR.- Barony 21 June 1929. Viscounty, 30 Jan. 1932.
EXT.- 6 Feb 1948
HISTORY- Thomas Sankey, of Moreton, co. Gloucester, by his wife Catalina, dau. of James Dewsbury of Manchester, had with other issue,

Sir John Sankey, Baron and Viscount Sankey, b. 26 Oct. 1866; educ. Lancing and Jesus Coll. Oxford, Scholar, M.A., B.C.L.; Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple, 1892; K.C. 1909; Chancellor of the Diocese of Llandaff, 1909-14; a Judge of the High Court of Justice, King's Bench, Div., 1914-28; Bencher, Middle Temple, 1914; a Lord Justice of Appeal, 1928-29; Lord High Chancellor, 1929-35; cr. Kt. Bach. 1914, made P.C. 1928; and cr. Baron Sankey, of Moreton co. Gloucester, 21 June 1929; and Viscount Sankey, 30 Jan. 1932. Treasurer Middle Temple, 1936, Cr. G.B.E. 1917, K.G. St. J. He adhered to the Labour party in 1929 and joined the National Government with Ramsey Macdonald and others in 1931. He d. 6 Feb 1948.

ARMS- Gules a fess ermine between in chief two martlets and in base a salmon naiant or.

CREST- In front of a dexter cubit arm vested gules and cuffed ermine, the hand grasping by the beam a pair of scales ppr. a martlet as in the arms.

SUPPORTERS- On either side a lion sable, gorged with a collar or, suspended therefrom on the dexter an escutcheon azure, charged with a Pascal Lamb of the second and on the sinister an escutcheon vert charged with a stag trippant gold.


Fairburns Crests of the Families of G.B. and Ireland
Pub. Tuttle Vermont 1968

Page 420 Sankey, Irish, a peacocks head, couped, ppr. PL100 CR5.

Sankey, Coolmore, co. Tipperary, a cubit arm, vested, sa, cuffed, ar, in hand a fish, ppr. PL105 CR9. Vesting PL32 CR6.


Armorial Families
Fox-Davies Pub. David and Charles (orig 1929) 1970 G.B.

Page 1724 SANKEY of Dean's Yard (H. Coll., 10 Ap. 1916). Gules, a fesse ermine between in chief two martlets, and in base a salmon naiant or. Crest - On a wreath argent and gules, in front of a dexter cubit arm vested gules, cuffed ermine, the hand grasping by the beam a pair of scales proper, a martlet as in the arms. Supporters (H. Coll., 31 July 1923) - On either side a lion sable, gorged with a collar or, suspended therefrom on the dexter, an escutcheon azure charged with a paschal lamb gold, and on the sinister an escutcheon vert charged within a stag trippant also gold. Son of Thomas Sankey, of Moreton-in-Marsh, b. 1828; d. 1875; m. 1865, Catalina Dewsbury (d. 1921);- The Rt. Hon. Sir John Sankey, G.B.E. (1917), P.C. (1928), Knt. Bach. (1914), Knight of Grace of the Order of the Hospital of St.John of Jerusalem in England, a Lord Justice of Appeal (1928), Judge of the King's Bench (1914), b. 1866. Res.- 14 Dean's Yard, Westminster SW1. Clubs- Oxford and Cambridge, Garrick, Atheneum.

SANKEY of Fort Frederic (U.O.). Argent, on a bend sable, three salmon of the field. Mantling sable and argent. Crest- On a wreath of the colours, a cubit arm vested sable, cuffed argent, holding a salmon proper. Son of Major Samuel Sankey, 9th Foot. b. d. m. 1841. Mary d. of William Anderson of Aughnacloy:-

Harry Samuel Sankey, Gentleman, b. d. m. 1913, Laura, d. of Lt.-Col. Charles William Selby-Lowndes. Seat- Fort Frederic, Virginia, co. Cavan. Club- Junior Carlton.

Son of John Sankey, Barr.-at-Law, b. d. 1873 m. 1834, Frances, d. of Hon. and Very Rev. George Gore, LL.D., Dean of Killala:-

Richard Jones Sankey Esq. D.L. co. Cavan (High Sheriff 1913), late Capt. 5th Dragoon Guards, b. m. 1995 [sic], Alice Maude, second d. of the late Gen. W. Saunders-Knox-Gore. Res- Fort Frederic, co. Cavan.

SANKEY (U.O.). Argent, on a bend sable, three salmon of the field. Mantling sable and argent. Crest- Upon a wreath of the colours, a cubit arm vested sable, cuffed argent, holding in the hand a fish proper. Motto- "Sancta clavis coeli fides".

Son of Major Matthew Henry Phineas Sankey, C.B. C.B.E., late R.E. b. 1853 d. m. 1876, Elizabeth, d. of Maj.-Gen. Edward Lawes Pym:-

Crofton Edward Pym Sankey Esq. D.S.O. Lt.-Col. Res. of Officers, late R.E., served S. Africa 1899-1900 (Queen's medal, 3 clasps) and Great War 1914-19 (desp., D.S.O. with Bar, Croix de Guerre) b. 1877 m. 1st 1902, Catherine Evelyn, d. of Cecil Coward; and 1908, Gertrude Marion, d. of G.A. Keefer of British Columbia. Club- United Service.

Sons of Lt.-Gen. William Sankey, C.B. of Bawnmore, b. 1822 d. 1892 m. 1852, Hannah Maria, d. of John Roe of Rockwell, co. Tipperary:-

Lt.-Col. Alfred Robert Mandeville Sankey, R.E. b. 1857

Major Cyril Charles Sankey, R.A. b. 1861 m. and has issue b. 1900

Sons of Matthew Henry Sankey Esq. J.P. b. 1823 d. 1876 m. 2nd 1853 Mehitobel, ygst d. of John Roe, D.L. of Rockwell co. Tipperary:-
Matthew Villiers Sankey, Gentleman, b. 1853
Hierom Richard John Sankey, Gentleman, b. 1854
Henry Sankey, Gentleman, b. 1856
Edward Morgan Crofton Sankey, Gentleman, b. 1859
Charles Arthur Sankey, Gentleman
Gerald Lewis Sankey, Gentleman


Burke's Landed Gentry
Pub. Colburn London 1853 (Two Volumes)

Sanke, Avelme & John Page 1620
Sankey, Anne Page 458
Sankey, Elizabeth & Colonel Page 1617
Sankey, Hierome Page 68 Sankey, Jacob Page 54(S)
Sankey, John Page 1398
Sankey, Matthew Page 258(S)
Sankey, Matthew Villiers Page 758
Sankey, Miss Page 946 Sankey, William Page 121
Sankey, Thomas Page 712, 198(S)

Sankey, Jacob-Hiram, Esq. of Coolmore, co. Tipperary, capt. R.N., b. 23 July 1807; m. 8 Feb 1844, Melita-Anne, only dau. of Capt. Rowan Hamilton R.N., of Killeagh Castle, co. Down. Capt. Sankey s. his elder brother, Matthew, in 1837.

The Sankeys descend from a Lancashire family of considerable antiquity. The first upon record is: GALFRIDUS DE SANKEY, who held the lands of Sankey Magna and Sankey Parva, in Lancashire, for military service, in the reign of King John. He was the father of RODERICUS DE SANKEY, living temp. Henry III, whose son, MATHEW DE SANKEY, m. temp. Edward I, a dau. of William de Ripon, and had, with a son, THOMAS, (Sir) Knight of St.John of Jerusalem, and other issue, an eldest son, JORDAN DE SANKEY, who m. temp. Edward II, Constance, dau. of Thomas Eardney, of Rotzam, and was father of RICARDUS DE SANKEY, whose son, LAURENCE SANKEY, living temp. Henry V, had two sons: the younger, THOMAS, was in orders; the elder m. temp. Edward IV, a dau. of William-Fitzallan Pemberton, of Pemberton, Kent, and was father of THOMAS SANKEY, of Sankey, who m. Jane, dau. of Edward Ewings, of Watsall, and was s. by his son, THOMAS SANKEY, of Sankey, who m. temp. Henry VIII, Margaret, dau. of Rowland Thicknesse, of Edmunds, and had a son, JOHN SANKEY Esq. who m. Anne, dau. of John Eymes, of Edynds Stretton, co. Salop, and by her (besides a dau. Jane m. to William Jones, and two sons, William and Stephen) had an eldest son:

THOMAS SANKEY Esq. of Sankey, co. Lancaster, and of co. Salop, living in 1566, temp. Elizabeth, who had issue, two sons:

THOMAS, of Sankey and Southall, co. Lancaster, and Edsborough, co. Bucks, who m. Margaret, dau. and co-heir of John Barker Esq., and Alice, his wife, dau. and heir of Bernard Delamere, by Alicia, his wife, dau. and heir of Edmund Sparholt Esq. of Berkshire, and had (besides two daus. Anne, m. to Wodehouse, of Warwickshire, and Margaret, and a son, John) an elder son:
EDWARD SANKEY Esq. of Edsborough who m. Mary Clements, of Lincolnshire, and had issue:
THOMAS of Edsborough, eldest son and heir, m. Alice, dau. of Rafe Bawtrey Esq. of Ryston, co. Middlesex, and had a dau. Winifred. JOHN. DOROTHY, m. to William Reynolds, of Kymble. FRANCES, m. to William Hill, of Windower, Bucks. JANE, m. to W. Largent, of Kymble.

PETER, of whose line we treat.

The younger son, PETER SANKEY Esq. of Cartwair, co. Salop, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Eaton, of Ryton, co. Salop, by a dau. of Hussey, of Hussey, and had issue:
SAMUEL, of Hampshire.
RICHARD, of whom presently.
JOHN, m. a dau. of Colfield, of Colfield, co. Salop, and had a son, RICHARD, a captain of dragoons.
THOMAS, of London.
WALTER, of London, m. a dau. of Scarlett, of London, and had a son, Thomas.
LAWRENCE, of London.
MARGARET, m. to Edward Somers, of London.
SARAH, m. to William Lawrence, of Salop.

The second son, RICHARD SANKEY, of Edgworth, co. Salop, m. Anne, dau. of Hilary Shrough, of Moorford Castle, co. Dorset, and had issue, JEROME, of whom presently; ROBERT, m. Mary, dau. of John Bird, of Camba, co. Stafford; ANNE, m. to Benjamin Ball; and ELIZABETH. The elder son,

JEROME SANKEY Esq., aged 25, in 1646, was major-commandant of the regt. of horse of Chester, and afterwards col. of horse, commander of a brigade in Ireland. He became M.P. for the counties of Cork, Waterford, and Tipperary, and also for the borough of Woodstock.

This gentleman was likewise proctor of the University of Oxford, and as such introduced Fairfax, Cromwell etc. to their degrees. By Dorothea, his wife, he left a son,

RICHARD SANKEY Esq. capt. in the army, and M.P. for Fethard, who m. a dau. of Captain Jacob, and had (with a dau. m. to Richard Millet, and a son, Matthew) an elder son,

JACOB SANKEY Esq. who m. a dau. of Matthew Jacob Esq. M.P., and was father of,

MATHEW SANKEY Esq. of Coolmore, who m. Elizabeth, dau. and co-heir of John Villiers Esq. of Hanbury Hall, co. Stafford, and had issue,
JACOB, his heir.
RICHARD, member of the colonial assembly of the island of St.Kitts, in the West Indies, also commissary for the island to arrange and carry into effect the articles of capitulation with the French.
WILLIAM M.P. m. Mary dau. of Stephen Mills Esq. of the city of Cork, banker, and had issue, MATTHEW m. Elinor dau. of Colonel O'Hara, of co. Antrim, nephew of Viscount Duncan of Camperdown, and had issue, WILLIAM, RICHARD-HIEROME, CROFTON, ELINOR, MARY-ANNE, ELIZA and GRACE. WILLIAM M.A. m. Sophia dau. of Robert Mulock, comptroller-general of the Stamp-office, and had issue, WILLIAM-HENRY-VILLIERS, ROBERT-STEPHEN-VILLIERS, ANNA-SOPHIA, MARIA-SARAH, MARY-ANNE, HANNAH-ELIZABETH m.John Roe Esq. of Rockwall, cousin of the Marquess of Ely, Earl of Dorchester etc. and had issue.

The eldest son and heir, JACOB SANKEY Esq. of Coolmore m. Elizabeth Caldwell of Dublin, sister of Admiral Sir Benjamin Caldwell, and had issue,
CHARLES in orders.
ELIZA m. to Benjamin Benyon Esq. M.P. for Stafford.

The eldest son, MATHEW-VILLIERS SANKEY Esq. of Coolmore m. in 1795, Mary Elrington, sister of Major Elrington, major of the Tower of London, and had issue,
JOHN-HENRY E.I.C.S. d. unm.
JACOB successor to his brother.
MARY-ELIZA-ANN m. to E. Galway Esq. son of Archdeacon Galway.
ELLENOR-JANE CATHERINE m. to the Rev. James Morton.

The eldest son, MATHEW-VILLIERS SANKEY Esq. of Coolmore m. Anne, second dau. of Samuel Perry, of Woodruffe, co. Tipperary, and niece to Lords Charleville and Dunalley, but d.s.p. in 1837, and was s. by his next surviving brother, the present Capt. JACOB-HIRAM SANKEY, of Coolmore.


The Dictionary of National Biography 1941-50

OUP 1959

Page 757 SANKEY, JOHN, Viscount SANKEY (1866-1948), lord chancellor, was born in Moreton-in-Marsh 26 October 1866, the son of Thomas Sankey, partner in the firm of Sankey and Norton, drapers and undertakers, by his second wife, Catalina, daughter of James Dewsbury, clerk, of Manchester. Sankey was educated at Lancing College and Jesus College, Oxford, where he was a scholar, and was placed in the second class in honour moderations (1887) and modern history (1889) and in the third class in the examination for the degree of bachelor of civil law in 1891. He was called to the bar by the Middle Temple in 1892. He began his practice in South Wales, and was soon busily engaged in workmen's compensation cases. He became a K.C. in 1909, and in 1914 was elevated to the bench with the customary knighthood. In 1915 he was chairman of the enemy aliens advisory committee and for his services was appointed G.B.E. in 1917.

In 1919 Sankey undertook the task with which his name will perhaps be chiefly associated, becoming chairman of the commission appointed under the Act of that year to inquire into the conditions of the coal industry. As a result of long and patient investigation, Sankey recommended nationalization of the coal-mines, and was much disappointed that his proposals were not implemented by legislation. His courage in standing by his convictions was unfortunately misconstrued by some of his old Conservative friends, but it was much appreciated by the Labour Party, and especially by Ramsey MacDonald. It was thought by many that Sankey was destined to be the first Labour lord chancellor, but in 1924 the claims of Lord Haldane could not be overlooked. In 1928 Sankey was promoted to the Court of Appeal and sworn of the Privy Council, and when Labour came to power for a second time in 1929 he was offered and accepted the Woolsack. He was created a baron and in 1932 a viscount. On the formation of the 'national' government in 1931, he was one of the few ministers who elected to stay with MacDonald; he remained lord chancellor until 1935 when Baldwin became Prime Minister and preferred to recall Lord Hailsham who had served previously as Conservative lord chancellor.

During Sankey's chancellorship, his time was occupied far more with political than with judicial functions. The emphasis placed on the political side of a lord chancellor's work has steadily grown since he ceased to be chancellor, but he was himself faced with duties which made the most exacting demands on his time. Chief among these were his chairmanships of the inter-imperial relations committee of the Imperial Conference, and of the federal structure committee of the Indian Round Table Conference. But the fact that the claims of law reform were never absent from his mind was demonstrated by his appointment of the Law Revision Committee, composed partly of academic lawyers, to whom was entrusted the important task of suggesting improvements in certain indicated branches of English law. From their reports have sprung several valuable pieces of legislation, mutually linked by the common name of Law Reform Acts.

Although he could not be described as a great judge, Sankey's judicial work was by no means negligible. In A.-G. v. Brown, [1920] 1 K.B. 773, he made an important contribution to constitutional law, by applying the eiusdem generis rule of interpretation to Section 43 of the Customs Consolidation Act, 1876. This provided that 'the importation of arms, ammunition, gunpowder, or any other goods, may be prohibited by Proclamation or Order in Council'. A proclamation, which purported to be made under the section, forbade the importation of chemicals. Sankey held that this prohibition was invalid, for the words 'or any other goods' must be restricted to goods of like character with those specifically enumerated. he described the Customs Act of 1853, which was re-enacted by the Act of 1876, as 'the Magna Carta of free trade', and pointed out the unlikelihood that Parliament should have intended, at that very moment, to confer on the executive an unfettered power to forbid the importation of all articles indiscriminately. In Henrietta Muir Edwards v. A.-G. for Canada [1930] A.C. 124, he delivered the judgement of the Privy Council which put upon Section 24 of the British North America Act an interpretation empowering the governor-general to summon women having the necessary qualifications to the Canadian Senate. During his short time at the Court of Appeal, he was a party to the decision in Hardie and Lane v. Chilton [1928] 2 K.B. 306. A trader had paid a sum of money to an association as the price of its refraining from placing his name on its 'stop list' for breach of one of its regulations, a course which its constitution allowed it to take. It was held that he was not entitled to recover it as paid under duress. It had been decided in R. v. Denyer [1926] 2 K.B. 258, that the secretary of such an association, demanding a money payment as the price of such restraint, brought himself within the definition of blackmail, and so the criminal and civil laws on the matter were in conflict, until the matter was resolved by a decision of the House of Lords in 1937 that a demand of money made for the protection of lawful business interests was outside the sphere of the law of larceny.

The judicial pronouncement by which Sankey will best be remembered is his speech in Woolmington v. Director of Public Prosecutions [1935] A.C. 462. This disposed of a fallacy, originating in Foster's Crown Law and upheld by Sir William Blackstone, that 'all homicide is presumed to be malicious, until the contrary appears upon the evidence'. Sankey referred to the fluid condition of the law of evidence in the eighteenth century, and laid down that there is no shifting of the burden on to the prisoner, after the Crown has proved that the deceased met his death at his hands, to prove in his turn that the killing did not amount to murder; but it rests with the Crown throughout to establish murder, and it is sufficient for the prisoner to raise a doubt as to his guilt. If the jury are satisfied with his explanation or are in reasonable doubt whether the act may not have been accidental or provoked, then the prisoner is entitled to acquittal or to a verdict of manslaughter, as the case may be.

Sankey was one of the kindliest of men, and this quality, together with his handsome figure and commanding presence, made him an excellent chairman, wherever he presided, in the House of Lords, or elsewhere. He was always much interested in matters religious and ecclesiastical. A high churchman, he was an active member of the governing bodies of Keble College and Pusey House.

At the same time he did great work in framing the constitution of the disestablished Welsh Church.

He was a bencher of his Inn, an honorary fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, and high steward of the university from which he received the honorary degree of D.C.L. (1930), and he had also that of LL.D. from the universities of Wales (1929), Cambridge (1932), and Bristol (1933). He died, unmarried in London, 6 February 1948, and the peerage accordingly became extinct. A portrait of Sankey by (Sir) Oswald Birley is at Jesus College and another by Evan Walters is in the National Museum of Wales.

[Personal knowledge.] H.G. Hanbury.


Dictionary of National Biography 1901-1911
Volume III Smith-Elder London 1912 Page 267

SANKEY, Sir RICHARD HIERAM (1829-1908), lieutenant-general, royal (Madras) engineers, born at Rockwell Castle, co. Tipperary, on 22 March 1829, was fourth son of Matthew Sankey, barrister, of Bawnmore, co. Cork, and Modeshil, co. Tipperary, by his wife Eleanor, daughter of Colonel Henry O'Hara J.P. of O'Hara Brook, co. Antrim. Educated at the Rev. D. Flynn's school in Harcourt Street, Dublin, he entered the East India Company's military seminary at Addiscombe in February 1845. Sankey showed considerable talent as an artist, and won a silver medal at an exhibition of the Dublin Society in 1845 and the prize for painting on leaving Addiscombe at the end of 1846. Commissioned as second lieutenant in the Madras engineers on 11 Dec. 1846, he arrived in Madras after the usual instruction at Chatham in Nov. 1848.

After serving with the Madras sappers at Mercatur he officiated in 1850 as superintending engineer, Nagpore subsidiary force, but owing to ill-health he was at home for three years (1853-6). Promoted lieutenant on 1 Aug. 1854, he was appointed, on returning from Madras in 1856, superintendent of the east coast canal. In May 1857 Sankey was called to Calcutta as under-secretary of the public works department under Colonel (afterwards General Sir) William Erskine Baker.

On the outbreak of the Mutiny, Sankey was commissioned as captain of the Calcutta cavalry volunteers, but in September was despatched to Allahabad for field duty. Besides completing the defensive works along the Jumna, he levelled the whole of the Allygunge quarter of the city, employing some 6000 workmen to clear the front of the entrenchments of obstructions and to construct a causeway across the muddy bed of the Ganges. He established a bridge of boats, and having to provide shelter for the advancing troops all along the grand trunk road in the Northwest Provinces, he arrived at Cawnpore, in the course of this duty, the day before it was attacked by the Gwalior force under Tantia Topi. He acted as assistant field engineer under Lieutenant-colonel McLeod, the commanding engineer of General Windham's force, and when that force fell back on the entrenchments was employed in strengthening the defences; noticing that the whole area as far as an outpost some 600 yards away was swept by the enemy's fire, he effectively connected the outpost with the entrenchment by a simple screen of mats fixed during one night.

After the rebels were defeated by Sir Colin Campbell on 6 Dec. Sankey was transferred as field engineer to the Gurkha force under Jung Bahadur. He organised an engineer park at Gorakpur and procured material for bridging the Gogra and Gumti rivers for the march to Lucknow. Alone he reconnoitred the Gogra, which was crossed on 19 Feb. 1858, when the fort Mowrani on the other side of the river was seized. Next day he took part in the action of Phulpur, where he constructed a bridge of boats 320 yards long in two days and a half, and made three miles of road. The Gurkha army, 20,000 strong of all arms, then crossed into Oude, and Sankey received the thanks of his commander and of the government of India for 'his great and successful exertions'. While on the march on 26 Feb. Sankey's conspicuous gallantry in forcing an entry into a small fort at Jumalpur occupied by the rebels was highly commended by the commander in his despatch, and he was unsuccessfully recommended for the Victoria Cross.

Sankey was at the action of Kanduah Nulla on 4 March, and was mentioned in despatches. He constructed the bridge to pass the troops over the river to Sultanpur and received the thanks of government. At Lucknow the Gurkha army was posted in a suburb south-east of the Charbagh, which it attacked on the 14th. Next day Sankey was with the Gurkhas when they carried all before them to the gate of the Kaisar Bugh, which General Thomas Franks had captured. Sankey was also engaged with the enemy on the 15th, 18th, and 19th, and on the final capture of the city made arrangements for establishing the bridge over the canal near the Charbagh.

Soon after the fall of Lucknow Sankey returned to Calcutta in ill-health, and was sent to the Neilgherries to recruit. For his services in the mutiny campaign he received the medal with clasp, was promoted second captain on 27 August 1858, and brevet major the next day. During 1859 he was executive engineer, and also superintendent of the convict gaol at Moulmein in Burma, and received the thanks of the government of India for his management of the prison. In 1860-1 he was garrison engineer at Fort William, Calcutta.

Promoted first captain of his corps on 20 June 1861, and appointed assistant to the chief engineer, Mysore, he held the post with credit until 1864. In 1864 he succeeded as chief engineer and secretary to the chief commissioner, Mysore, and during the next thirteen years managed the public works of that province. He originated an irrigation department to deal scientifically with the old native works; the catchment area of each valley was surveyed, the area draining into each reservoir determined, and the sizes and number of reservoirs regulated accordingly. He also improved the old roads and opened up new ones in all directions. Government offices were built, and the park around them laid out at Bangalore.

In 1870 Sankey spent seven months on special duty at Melbourne, at the request of the Victorian government, to arbitrate on a question of works for supplying water to wash down the gold-bearing alluvium of certain valleys. He was promoted brevet lieutenant-colonel on 14 June 1869, regimental lieutenant-colonel on 15 Oct. 1870, and brevet colonel on 15 Oct 1875.

In 1877 he was transferred to Simla as under-secretary to the government of India, and in September 1878, when war with the Amir of Afghanistan was imminent owing to the rebuff to the Chamberlain mission, was appointed commanding royal engineer of the Kandahar field force under Lieutenant-general, afterwards Field-marshal, Sir Donald Stewart. Sankey arrived with the rest of his staff at Quetta on 12 Dec. and being sent forward to reconnoitre recommended an advance by the Khawga Pass, leaving the Khojak for the second division under Major-general (afterwards Sir) Michael Biddulph. On 30 Dec. 1878 he was promoted regimental colonel. On 4 Jan. 1879 Sankey was with the advanced body of cavalry under Major-general Palliser when a cavalry combat took place at Takt-i-pul. Stewart's force occupied Kandahar, and advanced as far as Kalat-i-Ghilzai, when the flight of the Amir Shere Ali put an end, for a brief period, to the war. While Sankey was preparing winter quarters for the force at Kandahar he was recalled to Madras to become secretary in the public works department. For his share in the Kandahar expedition he was mentioned in despatches, created a C.B. and given the medal.

During five years at Madras Sankey became member of the legislative council, and was elected a fellow of Madras University. He helped to form the Marina and to beautify the botanical gardens and Government House grounds. On 4 June 1883 he was promoted major-general. He retired from the army on 11 Jan. 1884, with the honorary rank of lieutenant-general. He had previously received the distinguished service reward in India.

On his return to England in 1883 Sankey was appointed chairman of the Irish board of works. In 1892 he was gazetted K.C.B. After his retirement in 1896 he resided in London, but his activity was unabated. He visited Mexico and had much correspondence with the President Diaz. He died suddenly at his residence, 32 Grosvenor Place, on 11 Nov. 1908, and was buried at Hove, Sussex. Sankey was twice married: (1) in 1858, at Ootacamund, to Sophia Mary (d. 1882) daughter of W.H. Benson, Indian civil service; (2) in 1890, at Dublin, to Henrietta, widow of Edward Browne J.P.; she survived him. By his first wife he had two daughters, one of whom married his nephew, Colonel A.R.M. Sankey R.E.

[India Office Records; Vibart's Addiscombe; The Times, 12 Nov. 1908; memoir with portrait in Royal Engineers' Journal, June 1909] R.H.V.


Portrait of the Black Country

Parsons Pub. Robert Hale London 1986

Page 85 Consider Joseph Sankey, born in 1826, who began his career making japanned tea trays. His firm went on to make holloware and over the next hundred years extended into the electrical and motor body trades, existing today as GKN Sankey.


Vanity Fair

I have an original copy of two pages of the 10 April 1875 edition of this periodical. One page is a colour caricature of Ira D. Sankey, famous for the Sankey and Moody Hymn Book. The accompanying text reads:



Mr. Moody's companion, whose mission it is to sing the kind of Gospel that Mr. Moody preaches, is a man of five-and-thirty, endowed with a baritone voice which has by some been mistaken for a tenor. As between the praise and prayer in which the two colloborate there is not much to choose. Mr. Sankey's singing is as vulgar as Mr. Moody's preaching, and both his tunes and his methods are such as would be popular at music-halls. Yet when he is not loud he is often natural, and it is probable that early training as a nigger minstrel before he had become regenerated has taught him something of the art of producing sounds. He and Mr. Moody met first by chance at Indianapolis, and at once struck up an intamacy, which is now bearing fruit in meetings and subscriptions for "the work" to which they have appointed themselves. The result is that he is able to "thank God it is not hard now to speak for Jesus".


Julian Dictionary of Hymnology

Volume 2, Pub. John Murray, London 1825

Sankey, Ira David, was b. in Edinburgh, Pennsylvania in 1840, of Methodist parents. About 1856 he removed with his parents to Newcastle, Pennsylvania, where he became a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Four years afterwards he became the Superintendent of a large Sunday School in which he commenced his career of singing sacred songs and solos. Mr. Moody met with him and heard him sing at the International Convention of the Young Men's Christian Association, at Indianapolis, and through Mr. Moody's persuasion he joined him in his work at Chicago. After some two or three years work in Chicago, they sailed for England on June 7, 1872, and held their first meeting at York a short time afterwards, only eight persons being present. Their subsequent work in Great Britain and America is well known. Mr. Sankey's special duty was the singing of sacred songs and solos at religious gatherings, a practice which was in use in America for some time before he adopted it. His volume of Sacred Songs and Solos is a compilation from various sources, mainly American and mostly in use before. Although known as Sankey and Moody's Songs, only one song, "Home at last, thy labour done" (see Various), is by Mr. Sankey, and not one is by Mr. Moody. Mr. Sankey supplied several of the melodies. The English edition of the Sacred S. & S. has had an enormous sale; and the work as a whole is very popular for Home Mission services. The Songs have been translated into several languages. [J.J.]


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